Study: sudden weaning of angelfish larvae from brine shrimp to formulated larval feed

Here's an excerpt from a research paper by Sandamali Sakunthala Herath, at the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna,
and Kerthi Sri Senarathna Atapaththu, at the Department of Limnology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna. The study is entitled "Sudden weaning of angel fish pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae) larvae from brine shrimp (Artemia sp) nauplii to formulated larval feed":


"Seed production and larval rearing are the most critical steps in the aquaculture production chain. Success of this stage is determined by a combination of factors including larval nutrition, environment, immunity, water quality and stocking density. Among them, feeding and nutrition of tiny fish larvae plays a significant role and live feed is generally considered as the most suitable feed for first feeding larvae (Conceição et al. 2010). Artemia nauplii, rotifers, Moina, blood worms, Brachionus and copepods are some of the commonly used live feeds in aquaculture. However, associated constraints of live feed production such as high cost, potential risk on disease transmission, required additional infrastructure and manpower create difficulties to hatchery operations (Faulk & Holt,2009; Person 1989). Further, some of the live feeds are needed to be enriched with nutrients before feeding as they lack some essential factors required to maintain optimum growth and survival of fish larvae (Sargent et al. 1997; Aragão et al. 2004). However, readily available dry formulated larval feeds have an advantage over live feeds as it is more convenient to use and less expensive. Therefore, weaning larvae onto dry formulated diets at their early stage provides economical and practical benefits to hatchery operations. Different weaning protocols with a varying degree of success have been reported in aquaculture literature for both freshwater and marine fish species (Hung et al. 2002; Bonaldo et al. 2011; Muguet et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2009; Ballagh et al. 2010)."

Link to full study