Here's an excerpt from a research paper by Sandamali Sakunthala Herath, at the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna,
and Kerthi Sri Senarathna Atapaththu, at the Department of Limnology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna. The study is entitled "Sudden weaning of angel fish pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae) larvae from brine shrimp (Artemia sp) nauplii to formulated larval feed":


"Seed production and larval rearing are the most critical steps in the aquaculture production chain. Success of this stage is determined by a combination of factors including larval nutrition, environment, immunity, water quality and stocking density. Among them, feeding and nutrition of tiny fish larvae plays a significant role and live feed is generally considered as the most suitable feed for first feeding larvae (Conceição et al....
The following is submitted by John Valdez:



Since I have delved further into the hobby, I have found my biochemistry background to be of more usage than I anticipated. Recently, on one of the pages that I moderate for, I noticed a post of a system that reportedly provides “organic carbon substrates” via liquid supplementation, as an alternative to pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2). The purpose of this write-up is to investigate these claims, and to provide a more technical insight into CO2 utilization by plants.

The myth of “liquid CO2”:

First, I would like to address the misnomer that is “liquid CO2” and why that is fundamentally impossible in realem mundi. CO2 is a linear triatomic molecule, with carbon making 4 bonds by two C=O double bonds. The interactions between the atoms within this molecule (intermolecular forces) are relatively weak and thus, at room...
The following is contributed by member WalterCrews:


In all honesty, there are several images swimming (pun intended) around the internet as the highest priced Koi ever sold but regardless of whether this is “THE KOI” or not they continue to be sold for incredible amounts of money yearly.

According to Richard Tan, president of the Singapore Koi Club and chairman of the organizing committee for the First Asia Cup Koi Show in May 2008, the most expensive koi ever sold went to Japanese companies in the booming 1980s for about 50 million to 100 million yen apiece, or $500,000 to $1,000,000. If adjusted for inflation, 25+ years later, this is equivalent to paying in excess of $2.2 million in today's dollars for one exceptional fish.

Only a few koi enter the bidding at this level. Tan says that out of 500,000 koi bred annually, just 50 are selected for competition when they reach two years of age. The remaining koi go to...
I was asked to do a DIY thread on the upgrade/rewire of the LED light I have on my 54g corner tank. This thread will have a lot of pictures and explanation of what I do and how I do it for this specific project. Please note that this is not the only way to wire and drive LEDs this is just the method I am going to be using for this project.

I will take you step by step through the process. I will try and video some of the steps so you can see exactly how certain things are done.


2 - Mean Well ELN-60-48D drivers (require a 10v power source with dimmer to function)
2 - 10v constant current power adapters (used for dimming feature)
2 - 10K Ohm Potentiometers (used for dimming control)
20 - 3w 6500K White LEDs
5 - 3w 525nm Green LEDs
5 - 3w 630nm Red LEDs
1 - 12" x 10" x 2" Aluminum heat sink (for mounting the LEDs)
1 - 12v 80mm computer fan (to keep the heat sink cool)
18 ga wire (a lot)
40w soldering iron
Arctic Alumina Thermal Adhesive (adhering LEDs to heat sink)...
I ran across this article and thought it might be of interest:


"Scientists have shown for the first time how a species of tropical fish can distinguish between human faces. The archerfish used in experiments could demonstrate the ability to a high degree of accuracy; despite lacking the crucial neocortex part of the brain which other animals use for sophisticated visual recognition.

'The research, conducted by scientists from the University of Oxford and Australia's University of Queensland, wanted to test the long-held belief that differentiating between human faces could only be accomplished by more sophisticated animals, such as primates."

Link to story
So a while back this 'gem 'of info went down off the net and left me missing soooo much.
Well it appears at least someone found out how to travel back in time!
They found the old links in a site called the 'way back machine'!!
So here is the link for all who missed this as much as me!

I can only highly recommend reading info on topics from this site when possible.
I am so glad to have found this way back link!!!
Well, this topic ain't exactly off-topic but I just wouldn't know where to post this elsewhere.
Last year I've participated one of the largest exhibitions ever called the Aquahortus2015. It's been an exhibition within the field of vivaristics and was held for the 17th time. But it's not an annual exhibition. This edition was initiated because of the 425th anniversary of the Hortus Botanicus of the University of Leiden, the Netherlands. It was in co-operation with the LATV (local aquatium & terrarium society) which had its 85th anniversary and the DBA (national dendrobates poison dart frog community) which had its 10th anniversary.

This exhibition lasted for 3 weeks and happened to be an international platform for all interested in vivaristics. The whole exhibiton was held in all greenhouses and the whole premises. I have represented myself with 24 tanks with several livebearers in them. Besides that I was also supervising the the whole livebearer section overthere. Furthermore,...

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